Substation: Functions and Purpose

An electrical substation is a part of electric energy conversion and distribution system. Substations are designed for all voltages. They convert voltage from high to low and in reverse.

The electrical network defines the purpose, power and voltage of substations. The loads depend on the consumers. Let’s consider the main types of substations.

Converter stations are used to transmit and receive high voltage current. The main...

Oil Refining Process

Oil refining process. Crude oil just extracted from the well in its original form has a very limited application. Therefore it is processed before it arrives on the market in the form of gasoline, fuel oil, aviation fuel, etc.

In the early stages of the oil industry the refining process was reduced to primitive distillation. The “black gold” was brought to the boiling temperature, with condensation of...

March 30, 2017

Waste Oil Collection

Waste oil collection. Organizing waste collection is a part of waste management that includes technical support and quality control of collection, storage and transportation.

These duties are performed by the Supply Chain Management Division  that regulates standards for collection and use of petroleum products. The standards include the conditions of collection, delivery and use. The management division also provides financial support, encouraging high-quality collection of waste oil...

March 30, 2017

Power Plants and Substations

A power plant produces electrical energy. Depending on the process of energy conversion there are nuclear power plants, thermal, gas turbines, pumped hydroelectric energy storage, etc.

The substation is a facility responsible for the conversion and distribution of electricity.

Now the standard for AC frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz. The three-phase electric power is more economical than single-phase power transmission. In addition, three-phase power allows to...

March 30, 2017

Compressor Oil: Properties and Removal of Impurities

Compressor oil is used in the industry as a lubricant for the valves and cylinders of compressors; it is also used as a sealing medium for compression chamber and piston rods.

The main feature of that distinguishes compressor oils from other industrial oils is their operation in high-temperature environments and mixing with coolants. Therefore, compressor oils need to meet stringent requirements regarding chemical and thermal stability, as...

Household heating oil

The issue of inexpensive heating of small structures, like country houses, is very important. Despite the decline in oil prices, the products that are made from it are still expensive. The solution is to use alternative sources, or buy oil products at low price. In this article we will talk about the latter, an inexpensive oil product, more specifically: heating oil.

Hydrocarbons in the heating oil have...

March 27, 2017

Drying of silica gel

Silica gel. The industry uses various adsorbents to remove excess moisture. Today, there are many types of adsorbents of natural and synthetic origin. A special place among the adsorbers belongs to silica gel.

Silica gel is a dried gel obtained from oversaturated solutions of hydrated silica. The main feature of silica gel is its large specific surface area of approximately 1000 m2 / g. Silica gel is...

March 13, 2017

Diagnosis of Power Transformers by Insulating Oil

Diagnosis of power transformers helps to identify potential problems and failures in order to prevent and remove them.

It is recognized that the analysis of breakdowns of transformer insulation also detects anomalies in oil-filled equipment. For example, when metal parts of the transformer are overheated, the oil accumulates gases, carbon and metallic particles. The most dangerous of them for the insulation system are conductive particles of carbon...

February 9, 2017

Oil Degassing

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Oil degassing