The so-called “conventional technologies” can be used for the production of base oils. These technologies include selective treatment processes, solvent dewaxing and purification and oil filtering with adsorbents. The use of such technologies enables the production of base oils having sufficient quality to produce adequate motor oil.
Chemical composition of crude oil allows to distinguish two types of base oils produced using conventional techniques. These are paraffinic and naphthenic oils.
The so-called “new technologies” provide for the production of motor oils from mineral components that are hydroprocessed and partially (or entirely) replaced with synthetic ones.
Today scientists agree that hydroprocessing is able to partially or completely replace the classical approach to petroleum feedstock treatment. The components obtained by the use of hydroprocessing are called hydroprocessed components. Their quality is determined by the perfection and the depth of hydroprocessing.
Light hydro-treatment does not require usage of high pressure and temperature, so it can be used as an additional way of processing after classical methods for olefins, sulfur and nitrogen removal as well as odor removal and color enhancement of the refined products.
In case of deep hydro-treatment it is possible to obtain better results than using classical approaches. In particular, sulfur and nitrogen are completely removed, aromatics are well hydrogenated, and n-paraffins are isomerized to isoparaffins.
The most difficult process of obtaining hydrocracked base oils is catalytic hydrocracking followed by hydro-isomeration. But it allows making a product with the properties close to synthetic motor oil.