Category Archives: Solutions

Substation: Functions and Purpose

An electrical substation is a part of electric energy conversion and distribution system. Substations are designed for all voltages. They convert voltage from high to low and in reverse.

The electrical network defines the purpose, power and voltage of substations. The loads depend on the consumers. Let’s consider the main types of substations.

Converter stations are used to transmit and receive high voltage current. The main purpose of traction substations is to convert power for public utilities. Transit traction substations convert power for consumers, and transmit the power in the network to neighboring power systems. Intermediate substations convert power to their customers. Terminal substations are positioned near high-voltage lines.

Depending on the design there are indoor and outdoor substations. Outdoor substation equipment is located outdoors. Indoor substations equipment is reliably protected from adverse weather conditions indoors.

Substations for voltage of 6-10 kV are located in cities, towns and villages. They are serviced by mobile service crews.

Substations for voltages of 35kV, 110kV and 220 kV use low voltage controls and distribution gear. Their control panel and alarm is located on the front of the cabinet. These stations do not require constant presence of staff, and can be serviced by mobile service crews or an operator on duty. This is a common type of substations.

Indoor substations with high voltage of 110-220 kV are usually built in densely populated areas in large cities. They bear large electrical distribution loads and have a constantly operator on duty, also they should have noise isolation protecting the local population from the noise generated by the transformers.

Substations with higher voltage of 800 kV and 1500 kV have a large number of complex conversion equipment. They are fewer in number, compared with the other substations listed above.

Oil Refining Process

Oil refining process. Crude oil just extracted from the well in its original form has a very limited application. Therefore it is processed before it arrives on the market in the form of gasoline, fuel oil, aviation fuel, etc.

In the early stages of the oil industry the refining process was reduced to primitive distillation. The “black gold” was brought to the boiling temperature, with condensation of the oil products at different boiling points. Nowadays, oil refining is influenced by technological progress, and at the same time by the tightening environmental regulations.

The process of oil refining is as follows:

  1. Preparation of crude oil for processing;
  2. Primary crude oil processing;
  3. Re-refinery;
  4. Refining.

Preparation of oil for refining includes optional dehydration and salt removal to reduce corrosion of equipment and improve the quality parameters of oil.

The composition of crude oil includes various hydrocarbons, each of which has its value. That is why in the first stage the crude oil is separated into components by high temperature distillation. This method works because each component has a different condensation temperature and it can be condensed separately. Some of these components are ready to be delivered to the market. Other components are subjected to further processing to receive more expensive oil products.

Simple distillation removes small particles and adjusts oil chemical properties. The more complex transformations such as cracking and conversion is performed at large oil refineries. They produce higher quality oil such as petrol, and reduce the output of cheap oil such as black oil fuel and asphalt.

Oil refineries are located in close proximity to the source of raw material, oil pipelines, distribution points, and available labor and energy resources.

Waste Oil Collection

waste oil collection

Waste oil collection. Organizing waste collection is a part of waste management that includes technical support and quality control of collection, storage and transportation.

These duties are performed by the Supply Chain Management Division  that regulates standards for collection and use of petroleum products. The standards include the conditions of collection, delivery and use. The management division also provides financial support, encouraging high-quality collection of waste oil etc.

The used oil standard is the maximum quantity of oil, collected during maintenance or repair of equipment, and is individual to the equipment, site, shop, business, organization and region.

Used oil is collected from multiple sources, both businesses and individuals. The individual source of waste oil comes from one type of equipment, and the business source comes from multiple equipment and machinery belonging to one business.

Plans for collection, delivery and use of waste oil taking the existing standards and the number of units in operation into account. Part of the oil collected, recycled and regenerated is reused by businesses and organizations for their own needs.

Power Plants and Substations

power plant

A power plant produces electrical energy. Depending on the process of energy conversion there are nuclear power plants, thermal, gas turbines, pumped hydroelectric energy storage, etc.

The substation is a facility responsible for the conversion and distribution of electricity.

Now the standard for AC frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz. The three-phase electric power is more economical than single-phase power transmission. In addition, three-phase power allows to use low-cost simple induction motors and  is used by electric motor drives of industrial machinery.

DC is also used in industry, but not as often (electrified transport, electrolysis in chemical and non-ferrous metallurgy). Also, DC is used in transmitting electricity over long distances at the voltage of 800 kV.

Nominal voltage is an important parameter of electric appliances. It is the voltage at which electrical devices are designed to work. The nominal voltage of a transformer generator, its secondary windings and a synchronous capacitor is calculated 5-10% above the voltage of electric grid.

Several power stations can be joined into one system and run in parallel. This approach has a number of advantages:

  • Reliable power supply;
  • Efficient generation and distribution of electricity;
  • Improved quality of electric power;
  • Reduced power reserve of the energy system.

Power systems are managed by multi-level dispatcher control, which performs the following functions:

  • Plans a reliable operation of power systems;
  • Supplies uninterrupted power to customers;
  • Prevents and eliminates emergency situations;
  • Ensures necessary quality of electricity;
  • Maximizes efficiency of energy system.

Compressor Oil: Properties and Removal of Impurities

compressor oil

Compressor oil is used in the industry as a lubricant for the valves and cylinders of compressors; it is also used as a sealing medium for compression chamber and piston rods.

The main feature of that distinguishes compressor oils from other industrial oils is their operation in high-temperature environments and mixing with coolants. Therefore, compressor oils need to meet stringent requirements regarding chemical and thermal stability, as well as viscosity at low temperatures.

Compressor oils can be medium-load and heavy-duty. The medium-load air compressor oil doesn’t have additives. The heavy-duty compressor oil is produced from sulfur and low-sulfur petroleum by deep selective refining, followed by mixing with special additives, oxidation inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, antiwear additives, etc.

When selecting a particular oil, it is necessary to pay attention to pour point (must be low), viscosity index (must be high), the possibility of chemical interaction with a coolant, their mutual solubility, and corrosion activity of the mixtures.

The parameters of HA-23 and HF-12-16 compressor oils (Table 1).

Table 1

Parameter

HA-23

HF-12-16

Kinematic Viscosity at 50ºС, мм/с222-2418
Acid number mg KOH / g, max0,070,03
Sulphated Ash content,%, max0,005
Temperature ° C
flash point  °C, (min)175160
pour point °C, (max)-38-40
Oxidation resistance
Sludge content,%, max0,020,005
Acid number after oxidation, mg KOH / g, max0,6

Purification of compressor oils

Compressor oils containing water, solids and dissolved gases have significantly degraded performance properties. Their use therefore is highly undesirable. But it does not mean that the life cycle of the oil ends.

GlobeCore developed plants for purification and regeneration of compressor oils which remove water, dissolved gases and mechanical impurities. After processing, the compressor fluid has the initial properties, and can be reused for its intended purpose.

Сompressor oil purification equipment from GlobeCore:

  • Reduces water content to 10 ppm or less;
  • Reduces air content not 0.25% or less (vacuum degassing);
  • Removes solid impurities to 1 micron;
  • Extends lifetime of oil and compressor;
  • Increases efficiency of compressors;
  • Reduces downtime.

Household heating oil

The issue of inexpensive heating of small structures, like country houses, is very important. Despite the decline in oil prices, the products that are made from it are still expensive. The solution is to use alternative sources, or buy oil products at low price. In this article we will talk about the latter, an inexpensive oil product, more specifically: heating oil.

Hydrocarbons in the heating oil have a higher heat-producing capacity than kerosene hydrocarbons or dry gas fuel. Their transportation is cheaper, it doesn’t need pressure equipment. The other benefits of heating oil are:

  • Reduction of fire or explosion risk in comparison with petroleum oil;
  • No pre-heating before using in combustion chamber
  • Chemically simpler and environmentally cleaner.

These factors lead to a wide use of heating oil for household needs. This oil product is also used in light and heavy industry, but to a lesser extent.

Among the particularly important operating parameters of heating oil are flash point and pour point.

Flash point is the minimum temperature at which the fuel vapor can form flammable mixture with air. For heating oil it is the point of vapors escaping from the reservoir and inflaming.

Pour point is the temperature at which certain components of the fuel freeze. It determines the ability of oil to flow at low temperatures.

Drying of silica gel

silica gel

Silica gel. The industry uses various adsorbents to remove excess moisture. Today, there are many types of adsorbents of natural and synthetic origin. A special place among the adsorbers belongs to silica gel.

Silica gel is a dried gel obtained from oversaturated solutions of hydrated silica. The main feature of silica gel is its large specific surface area of approximately 1000 m2 / g. Silica gel is available on the market in the form of grains and spherical  granules.

Silica gel is widely used for drying:

  • air
  • industrial oils;
  • carbon dioxide;
  • hydrogen;
  • chlorine;
  • nitrogen.

It is also used for protection of equipment against corrosion.

After the adsorbent is saturated with moisture, it must go through a process of drying to be returned into service.

To solve this problem, GlobeCore has developed the SSZ-15B drying cabinets. They are designed to remove water from sorbents with particle size of not less than 1 mm.

The drying cabinet is equipped with a fan that ensures even distribution of heat through the layers of the dried material. The timer allows to hold a specified temperature during a preset time.

SSZ-15B

Comparing with the previous models, SSZ-15B has the following advantages:

  • Operates at temperature up to 400 ° C;
  • Maintains preset temperature;
  • The door screw lock improves pressure sealing and eliminates paint stripping;
  • Oven trays are removable, thus the cabinet can be used for preheating, heat strengthening and baking of other materials and parts.

The customer can request heating elements of up to 800 ° C, as required for the production processes, and a furnace temperature control system protecting the operator from burns.

Diagnosis of Power Transformers by Insulating Oil

Diagnosis of Power Transformers

Diagnosis of power transformers helps to identify potential problems and failures in order to prevent and remove them.

It is recognized that the analysis of breakdowns of transformer insulation also detects anomalies in oil-filled equipment. For example, when metal parts of the transformer are overheated, the oil accumulates gases, carbon and metallic particles. The most dangerous of them for the insulation system are conductive particles of carbon and wet fibers. Some faults are the result of oil contamination with solid particles. It depends on the amount, size and origin of such impurities. Hence, the analysis of oil contamination gives valuable information about the condition of the transformer.

The low flash point and the increased acid number indicate high local overheating and destruction of insulating liquid. The dielectric breakdown and an increase in dielectric tangent loss confirm the presence of moisture in the insulation system.

Diagnosis of power transformers. Acid number is also an important diagnostic parameter. It characterizes the presence of acid and oxidized products of aging paper insulation, which accelerate the formation of sludge in the oil. The maximum acid number is 0.25 mg KOH / g. The recommended value for fresh transformer oil is no more than 0.03 mg KOH / g.

Starting up a transformer after a long break in the cold season could have the dielectric strength reduced more than twice.

The most dangerous thing for the insulating liquid is being saturated with gases and moisture. Sudden changes in temperature and atmospheric pressure can cause small bubbles to appear in the oil, which, under the influence of oil flow and electromagnetic fields, concentrate in the paper insulation, making it even more vulnerable.

Oil Degassing

A question for many is what transformer oil is, what it consists of and what are its main functions inside the transformer. Transformer oil is a type of insulation oil made by fractination of crude oil. It mostly consists of parrafin, saturated oil hydrocarbons and many other components.

The main functions of transformer oil are:

  1. Insulation. Transformer oil is a better dielectric than air. Insulation covered with oil not only performs better, but is also protected from erosion.

  2. Heat dissipation. Transformer generates a lot of heat, so the oil is used as a coolant. The oil is essential to correct operation of a transformer.

  3. Transformer oil is essential for arc interruption and extends transformer lifetime.

 

The most common contaminants, apart from gas, are water and solid particles. Degassing also helps to remove water molecules from the oil.

The first question is why transformer oil degassing is necessary? The gases solved in the oil can cause sparks, arcing, corona and, of course, overheating, which degrade equipment efficiency and shortens transformer service life. Besides, water in the oil decreases oil’s dielectric strength.

In the future, with the ever increasing standard requirements for distribution transformers, the need for efficient degassing will continue to grow. Gas exists in the oil in the form of separate or attached molecules, invisible to the naked eye.

The main technique for removal of gas from the oil is pressure decrease. As pressure drops, the molecules gather together and the gas starts to form into bubbles. The bubbles grow as pressure decreases and float to the oil’s surface or are pushed through the coagulant.

To ensure efficient function of transformers, proper and timely purification of oil from gas and solids is essential. All the processes inside the transformer degrade the oil, which may lead to many malfunctions and problems with equipment.

 

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What Is the Best Way to Degas Transformer Oil?

Oxygen found in transformer oil leads to oxidation and significantly reduces the dielectric strength of the oil and the insulating system.  In general, under normal atmospheric pressure, the insulating oil contains approximately 10% of atmospheric air.  The higher the temperature, the better the dissolution of air in oil wll be.  It is highly important to understand that the composition of atmospheric air and the air dissolved in oil, differ greatly.  Atmospheric air is comprised of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen.  When that same air is dissolved in oil, it becomes comprised of 69.8% nitrogen and 30.2 oxygen.

Transformer oil drying is a complex of processes targeted at the removal of water, gasses, and mechanical impurities from the dielectric oil.  The following methods may be used for drying the oil:

  • centrifugation  In this case, mechanical impurities and water are removed from oil, influenced by centrifugal forces.  In practice, this method is applied mainly for oils that will be used for equipment with a voltage of no less than 35 kV.
  • adsorption  Water and impurities are removed by using mineral and synthetic adsorbents.  This method allows for the removal of water dissolved in the oil;
  • vacuum drying  Oil is heated up and then is pumped through a degasifier.

Vacuum processing is considered to be the most effective method since it removes dissolved water and gasses from  the oil.  This process is realized either by spraying oil in vacuum chambers or using special heaters that are evenly distributed in the vacuum chamber utilizing Raschig rings and grid packings.  There are special degassing units used to perform the degassing and vacuumizing processes.

The main part of such equipment is a degasifier that consists of two tanks.  The vacuum in the tanks is created by vacuum pump system.  Additionally, there are spraying devices on the tank cap that distribute oil evenly in the vacuum chamber.  Degassing takes place when oil flows in thin streams on the surface of Raschig rings.

The method of vacuum spraying is based on the spraying of the oil and water solution in the vacuum by a pulverizing jet into a special tank.  These processes allow for the removal of free and dissolved moisture as well as dissolved air.  If the level of oil dispersion is adequately thin, it easily gets rid of moisture.

Vacuum drying includes three main stages such as:

(1) breakdown voltage increases very sharply due to the removal of emulsion water;

(2) there are minor changes of the breakdown voltage of oil (60 kV) At this time dissolved and loosely-coupled water is removed; and

(3) breakdown voltage increases slowly due to the removal of bound water.

The efficiency of vacuum drying of transformer oil is improved when it is warmed up because the amount of evaporable moisture is increased.

GlobeCore has developed the CMM line of vacuum units for transformer oil purification to solve the problems that arise when mounting, repairing and servicing oil-filled equipment with a voltage up to 1150 kV.

To meet the needs of our customers, each unit is custom made and can be puchased in may come in pad-mounted version, or placed on single axle or tandem trailers.  The technical characteristics of the CMM units are described below:

 

If you are reading this, you are most likely:

  • Owner of an electric energy related company.  You don’t need regular expenses on oil disposal and purchase. You are looking for efficient solutions and stable income, not headaches.
  • Purchase Department Manager. You need to meet the goals set by the company’s management in terms of best prices and quality and build and maintain relations with suppliers.  GlobeCore has built and maintains many ties with our partners all over the world.
  • Service Engineer of oil filled equipment. You have seen that the samples of the oil from the transformers are far from ideal, but you need your equipment to operate smoothly and reliably. The GlobeCore CMM-R is the ideal product with service centers and spare parts readily available for support.

Does your company really need the GlobeCore Oil Degassing Equipment:

  • You need a permanent solution to you oil disposal problem
  • You want to save on purchasing new transformer oil
  • You want regenerated oil to be fully compliant with the norms and regulations, and to extent the service life of your oil filled equipment by many years

If the answers are yes, then the GlobeCore CMM-R line is the  right choice.

Advantages of the GlobeCore Oil Degassing Machines:

  • The customer may order the system in one of the several designs: basic, containerized, on trailer, on three-axle trailer, and with various door configurations;
  • The unit may be equipped with a special climate controlled operator workstation;
  • Additional equipment for control of oil level in the transformer, a generator for independent operation, inhibitor injection section;
  • Fast production;
  • Competitive price;
  • Qualified assistance from our engineers both before and after purchasing of the system;
  • Component parts from the world’s leading manufacturers;
  • Oil parameters after regeneration cothat mply with all regulations;
  • No need for additional waste oil storage facilities;
  • Savings on purchasing new oil and elimination of disposing of old oil;
  • Low energy consumption; and a
  • Fully automated process;

Globecore GmbH: The manufacturer

GlobeCore is a large multi-centered company, which has been actively working in the international marker for over 10 years. During this time the company has significantly expanded its production capabilities, the product line and the global dealer network. We carefully listen to the inquieries of our clients to provide the best service.

Over 250 administration, engineering and manufacturing world class specialists are employed by the company. We are always open to accept the new tendencies of the world economy and technologies. The result is hundreds of units produces annualy and client satisfaction.

New ideas and processes are always welcome at out company. We constantly present our products at various expos and tradeshows and we are quite a sponge for novelties and trends. This approach allows us to effectively streamline our production, manufacture environmentally friendly products and keep our clients satisfied.

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No Blackout.

Oil is processed on an energized transformer. That is, the population of a whole city will not have to sit in the dark in the evening trying to iron their shirts with heavy books.
Up to 15 kV the transformer doesn’t even have to be de-energized to connect the processing system.

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Complete restoration of oil.

The CMM-R12 features full oil regeneration cycle by one unit. The process includes filtration, degassing and restoration of chemical composition. There is no need anymore to use many complex devices: the CMM-R system does it all - and it’s easily controllable by only one operator.

recycling

Protect Environment.

Fuller’s earth, i.e. the adsorbent used in this system, does not require disposal or refills. It is reactivated inside the system by the system! This is a world class innovation and a huge investment into a greener planet. This will even make it easier to attract the attention of investors, since environmentally friendly technologies is not only a modern world trend, but also often a requirement of many national programs and manufacturers, that is, your clients.

CE

German Quality.

All out products are certified, reasonably priced and built to the highest quality standards. Not one product leaves the factor without rigorous trial at the factory’s testing facility.

people

Visit our facility.

Consider making a personal visit to the factory to see the first class technologies and also test your product samples. The results will be a pleasant surprise.

earth

Global shipment.

We will deliver your CMM-R system anywhere in the world.

Questions?

Fuller's earth

Fuller's earth

CMM-R

  • How much does the CMM-R extend the transformer service life?

    The average life of a transformer can be extended by 20-35 years.

     

  • Should the oil be pumped out of the transformer for regeneration with CMM-R?

    No, the oil can be regenerated in the transformer which may be energized during the process.

     

  • Why should I use the regeneration system if I can use the waste transformer oil in other systems with lower quality requirements?

    You can, but this does not solve two problems: oil disposal and transformer health.

     

  • Can I use a different sorbent type?

    Yes you can, but only the Fuller’s Earth sorbent can be reactivated in the unit multiple times without the need to stop the regeneration process.

What kinds of oil can be regenerated by the CMM-R?

  • transformer oil
  • turbine oil
  • industrial oil
  • heavy heating fuel,
  • diesel fuel etc,
  • in general, any mineral oil with viscosity below 70 cSt at +50ºС.

We have earned the trust of various industries:

  • oil and other petroleum product producers;
  • hydro, thermal and nuclear power plants, electric installation and repair facilities;
  • large manufacturing centers, substations, other manufacturers

A satisfied client speaks better than long specification lists. See below how our clients not only purchased our units, but also completed their goals with them.

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Mr. Shekanano, the United Republic of Tanzania:

I have only good feelings about GlobeCore.
After having seen the production facility I realized this was a serious and reliable company, with professional staff and a streamlined operation. Of course, the production seems complex, but so are the products.

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Mr. Patel, the United Republic of Tanzania:

I would like to wish GlobeCore the brightest future and I think we will work together for many years to come. I wish you many successful projects and new developments.

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Mr. Shekanano, the United Republic of Tanzania:

The results of lightening of and purification of petroleum products are amazing. We have purchased and will continue to purchase UVR type units.

2

Mr. Hector Guerrera, the Dominican Republic:

While testing equipment made by GlobeCore we were quite impressed by the high technical standard of the systems, as well as by the professionalism of GlboeCore’s expert staff.

Some of our client are:

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CMM-12R

CMM-12R

The primary focus of  GlobeCore is the development and production of transformer oil regeneration equipment. Among the methods of regeneration the most widely used is adsorption treatment. It is particularly effective for processing the oils containing dissolved products of aging. The adsorbent becomes gradually saturated and requires recovery of its properties. Generally, the reactivation process takes 18-20 hours.

But not all of our customers have the opportunity to allocate the time for sorbent reactivation, because the same time can be spent to process several tens of tons of transformer oil. Therefore, GlobeCore has developed a new CMM-12R plant which on the one hand performs adsorption treatment, and on the other hand, it works round the clock without breaks for the recovery of sorbent.

This year GlobeCore has sold several of these plants. The last commissioning took place on August 25 in Quito (Ecuador). The CMM-12R unit was connected to a transformer without switching the transformer offline. Ecuador is a mountainous country, and the GlobeCore plant had to work in high altitudes, which had no effect on the quality of oil recovery: the results were consistently high. In particular, it was possible to reduce dielectric loss tangent from 11% to 0.7% at 90 ° C, as well as to increase the breakdown voltage up to 80 kV in the first test cycle.

The CMM-12R unit is designed for regeneration of insulating oil and maintenance of power transformers. The capacity of this equipment is 1,000 liters / hour. The equipment allows to:

  • Remove dissolved gas;
  • Remove free and dissolved water;
  • Remove solids;
  • Remove oil decay products;
  • Evacuate a transformer;
  • Heat a transformer and its active part and winding with hot oil;
  • Remove sludge from transformer windings

The CMM-12R unit is a frame structure that includes a degassing section, a regeneration section and an operator room. The degasser performs filtration, heating and vacuum drying of oil, and the regeneration section performs restoration of oil chemical properties. Also, the regeneration section performs multiple reactivations of sorbent. The operator room has a control cabinet, a desk etc.

To get started, the equipment is filled and connected to the transformer via the TSS security system. The next step is to warm up the unit and bleed the air.

During regeneration, the oil is pumped through the lower port of the transformer and fed into the degassing section. The degasser filters and heats the oil. The heated oil flows into the regeneration section. After regeneration, the oil reenters the degasser. The degassed oil goes through final fine filtration. Then it is pumped back to the transformer.

The CMM-12R unit has the following advantages:

  • Round the clock regeneration of transformer oil without breaks for sorbent replacement;
  • Online and offline transformer maintenance;
  • Manual and automatic control;
  • Control via GSM-module (mobile phone);
  • Condition monitoring of all major components
  • Operator  room equipped with air conditioning and a computer;
  • Operated by 1-2 operators.

If you value your time, the CMM-12R unit is for you. With this equipment you can easily regenerate transformer oil 24 hours a day!