A power plant produces electrical energy. Depending on the process of energy conversion there are nuclear power plants, thermal, gas turbines, pumped hydroelectric energy storage, etc.
The substation is a facility responsible for the conversion and distribution of electricity.
Now the standard for AC frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz. The three-phase electric power is more economical than single-phase power transmission. In addition, three-phase power allows to use low-cost simple induction motors and is used by electric motor drives of industrial machinery.
DC is also used in industry, but not as often (electrified transport, electrolysis in chemical and non-ferrous metallurgy). Also, DC is used in transmitting electricity over long distances at the voltage of 800 kV.
Nominal voltage is an important parameter of electric appliances. It is the voltage at which electrical devices are designed to work. The nominal voltage of a transformer generator, its secondary windings and a synchronous capacitor is calculated 5-10% above the voltage of electric grid.
Several power stations can be joined into one system and run in parallel. This approach has a number of advantages:
- Reliable power supply;
- Efficient generation and distribution of electricity;
- Improved quality of electric power;
Reduced power reserve of the energy system.
Power systems are managed by multi-level dispatcher control, which performs the following functions:
- Plans a reliable operation of power systems;
- Supplies uninterrupted power to customers;
- Prevents and eliminates emergency situations;
- Ensures necessary quality of electricity;
- Maximizes efficiency of energy system.